Prathama provides delivery of Blood Components at Patient bedside, on demand. This facility is useful for patients from outside city and those patients whose relatives can not manage to visit Prathama at the time of requirement of Blood.
Delivery boys visit patients and pick-up blood samples of patients (taken by hospital staff), process them at Prathama on behalf of patients and deliver the requested blood components at patient bed side. This facility is available on a very nominal service charge.
Red Blood Cells transports oxygen to various organs and helps in exhaling carbon dioxide from body. Red Blood Cells contains protein called Hemoglobin that carries oxygen. Red Blood Cells transfusion is required to increase supply of oxygen to tissues.
Prathama provides Red Blood Cells in Additive Solution. Additive solution preserves and extends shelf life of Red Blood Cells. As compared to Whole Blood and Packed Cells having shelf life of only 35 days, Red Blood Cells in additive solution have shelf life of 42 days. Red Blood Cells in additive solution have less chances of hemolysis during storage and also it helps easy fluidity during transfusion.
Red Blood Cells Hematocrit ranges from 55 – 65% and average hemoglobin per bag 13 – 45 gms. A strict donor acceptance criterion at Prathama ensures the same. On the other hand a stringent Quality control measure ensures adequate dose, sterility and safety of the blood component.
Red Blood Cells transfusion is required in case of acute blood loss (almost 30% of blood volume). Most frequently required during surgeries. Red Blood Cells are transfused to patients having certain blood disorders like Sickle cell anemia, Thallassemia, aplastic anemia etc.
Red Blood Cells before issuing to patients requires cross match procedure. During Cross matching blood sample of patient is matched with blood sample of Voluntary Blood Donor. Blood in stock having compatibility with patients’ blood is issued. Prathama, tries to provide group specific Red Blood Cells, however, working on componentization patient with particular blood group can be served by different blood group as mentioned below. This extends possibility of serving more patients, even when particular blood group is not in stock.
|Blood Group of recipient||Can receive Red Cells in Additive Solution from||A+||A+, A-, O+, O-|
|B+||B+, B-, O+, O-|
|AB+||AB+, AB-, A+, A-, B+, B-, O+, O-|
|AB-||AB-, A-, B-, O-|
Platelet helps in stop bleeding. When injury occurs, platelets bind together and form a plug inside blood vessel, at injury site. Normally, platelet ranges from 150,000-450,000 per mcL (microliter). The average platelet count is 237,000 per mcL in men and 266,000 per mcL in women. Platelet count less than 150,000 per mcL is termed as thrombocytopenia while platelet count above 450,000 mcL is termed as thrombocytosis.
Platelet transfusion is required when platelet count falls down from normal range (thrombocytopenia) or because of some functional defects of platelets. This fall may be because of certain disease like dengue. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy also require platelets, very frequently.
Platelets have shelf life of only 5 days and needs to be stored in agitator (shaking platform) at 20-24 degree celsius. Cross matching procedure is not required while issuing Platelets to patients.
Prathama ensures best quality of Platelets collected from Voluntary Donors only. Platelets derived from 450 ml blood donated ensures 30% more platelet yield. One unit of Platelet transfused can result in increase of platelet count by approximately 5000-10000 per mcL. Non group specific platelets can be given to patients, however, at Prathama we preferably issue group compatible Platelets, depending on availability at the time of request.
FFP is prepared by centrifugation of whole blood to separate platelet rich plasma (PRP); The PRP is further centrifuged to separate the plasma from the platelet concentrate. This plasma is then blast frozen to prevent loss of temperature-sensitive (“labile”) coagulation factors V & VIII. The separation of plasma within 6 hours of blood donation qualifies it to be called “fresh” and factors are best preserved in plasma blast frozen. Prathama have facility of blast freezing plasma. The blast freezer blasts cold air on to the plasma bag and pulls down the temperature from 25 degree celsius to less than -30 degree celsius in less than an hour. FFP can be stored at -30 degree celsius for 1 year.
FFP usage Indications
• Management of preoperative or bleeding patients who require replacement of multiple plasma coagulation factors (e.g., liver disease, DIC)
• Patients with massive transfusion who have clinically significant coagulation deficiencies.
• Patients on warfarin (an anticoagulant (blood thinner) that reduces the formation of blood clots. Used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots in veins and arteries.) Who are bleeding or need to undergo an invasive procedure before vitamin K could reserve the warfarin effect or who need to have anticoagulation therapy after the procedure.
• For transfusion or plasma exchange in patients with Thromnotic Thrombocytopenic Puputa (TTP)
• Management of patients with selected coagulation factor deficiencies, congenial or acquired, for which no specific coagulation concentrates are available.
• Management of patients with rare specific plasma protein deficiencies, such as C-1-esterase.
Prathama ensures safe FFP to patients, as the same is collected from Voluntary Blood Donors (more than 40% repeat donors). Also ensures volume of FFP as high as 250-320 ml plus and good yield of most critical proteins. For FFP compatibility test is not required. Plasma must be ABO-compatible with the recipient’s red cells. Before issuing FFP to patients, it is thawed at 37 degree celsius. After thawing it should be stored at 2 – 6 degree celsius and must be transfused within 24 hours.
When FFP is thawed at 4 degree celsius a precipitate is formed which is suspended in about 25 ml Plasma. This precipitate is called Cryoprecipitate. Prathama provides Cryoprecipitate on demand. Cryoprecipitate is helpful to treat Factor VIII, Factor XIII and fibrinogen deficiencies. Cryoprecipitate contain more than 80 IU of Factor VIII/ 25 ml bag.
Cryoprecipitate is mostly used for patients having Haemophilia-A, Van-Willebrand’s disease, liver disease, DIC,TTP, massive transfusion, etc.
Cryo Poor Plasma is derived from Fresh Frozen Plasma. Useful in the treatment of burns cases and the stable coagulation Factor deficiencies like Factor IX. Contains very less chemicals like Potassium also helpful in the treatment of albuminemia.
Prathama have facility to provide single Donor Platelet. This includes a special procedure wherein Voluntary blood donor only donates platelets. In this process we can harvest large number of Platelets from a donor, which would reduce the donor exposure for patient by six to eight times. This results in fewer febrile non hemolytic reactions and reduced HLA immunization. Single Donor Platelet shows better response in “refractory” patients (those who don’t respond well to random donor platelet concentrates transfusion)
Single Donor Platelets are required in following cases-
• Apastic or hypo plastic anemia
• Bone Marrow suppression following chemotherapy after leukemia
• Myelo Dysplastic syndrome (MDS)
• Non- Hodkin’s Lymphoma (NHL)
• Dengue fever
• Vascular surgery
• DIC patients
• Hypersplenism etc
Prathama ensures faster availability of Singe Donor Platelets round the clock and also arranges for donor.
Leucocytes (WBC) are present in varying concentrations in all cellular blood components. These can lead to alloimmunisation and other complications in immune compromised patients. Prathama have facility to prepare special blood products such as Leucocyte-reduced red cells to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of contaminating leucocytes.
Leukocyte reduced RBCs are collected in special blood bags. This blood component is required for immune compromised patients, Thallassemia, intra uterine transfusions and neonates. This ensures 3 log reduction of leucocytes in RBCs that reduces chances of transfusion reactions
Pre-Storage filtration eliminates accumulation of chemicals like cytokines.
• The procedure is done on allogenic donors and autologous patients.
• Extremely helpful to treat hematological disorders.
Leucocytapheresis (Leukapherasis) is term for “to take away leucocytes” (white blood cells) Prathama have facility for Leucocytapheresis. This is often used to treat the elevated white cells count that can occur in acute leukemia. This procedure is sometimes used to reduce the white cell count before the start of chemotherapy, to reduce likelihood of tumor lyses syndrome.
This special procedure is done to remove extremely high count of platelets. When Platelets increase from normal range it is called Thrombocytosis. When this leads to a disease condition called Thrombocythemia, this procedure is indicated.
• Useful in treating hemolytic disease of the fetus and new born (HDFN).
• Combination of O group cells and AB group plasma
In neonatal patients, when need for transfusion is required, only small volume is required. In such cases desired volume of blood components made available with closed systems. Remaining volume is again used for other pediatric patients. These components are useful for children, neonates and for intra uterine transfusions.
Prathama is the only stand alone NGO Blood Centre in the city having Irradiation facility. In this process with the help of Gama-irradiation with a dose of 25gy lymphocytes present in blood components are destroyed. Irradiation sensitive labels are used to assure proper irradiation during the process. Irradiated blood components are required to prevent Graft vs. Host Disease (GvHD) in cases of bone marrow, stem cell transplant patients and for intra uterine transfusions.
Irradiation process is done on demand from the treating doctors. Red Blood Cells (RBCs), Platelets transfusion and Granulocyte (White Blood Cells) transfusions are irradiated for patients. Plasma components such as Fresh Frozen Plasma, Anti-D, Albumin, and Immunoglobulin need not be irradiated.
Saline washed Red Blood Cells are used for patients having history of severe allergic reaction after transfusion. This process is done to remove all the plasma components and the accumulated chemicals during storage. The said process is done under laminar air flow to ensure sterility and saline wash Red Cells should be used within 24 hours.
Useful in cases of IgA deficiency and PNH